TRAVELER ‘S DISEASE

Gastroenteritis

        Gastroenteritis is an infection of the gut (intestines). It causes diarrhoea and may also cause  to be sick (vomit), and have tummy (abdominal) pain and other symptoms. In most cases the infection clears over several days but sometimes takes longer. The main risk is lack of fluid in the body (dehydration). The main treatment is to have lots to drink which aims to avoid dehydration. Patient should also eat as normally as possible. See a doctor if you suspect that you are dehydrating.

        Gastroenteritis is an infection of the gut (intestines). The severity can range from a mild tummy upset for a day or two with mild diarrhoea, to severe diarrhoea and being sick (vomiting) for several days or longer. Many germs (viruses, bacteria and other microbes) can cause gastroenteritis.

        Traveler’s diarrhea is a stomach and intestinal infection that occurs as a result of unsanitary handling of food. Food handlers who do not wash their hands after they use the bathroom can transmit the infection to people who consume the contaminated food.

        Areas where there is the highest risk of contracting traveler’s diarrhea include the developing countries of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and Asia. The risk of infection varies depending on the type of eating establishment visited — from fairly low risk in private homes to high risk in food from street vendors.

        The most common culprit is a bacteria called E.coli.and Campylobactor.

        Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection.This may include a high feverheadache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash.Recovery generally takes two to seven days In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleedinglow levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs

          Influenza, commonly known as “the flu“, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high feverrunny nosesore throatmuscle painsheadachecoughing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks. Nausea and vomiting occur more commonly in the unrelated infection gastroenteritis, which is sometimes inaccurately referred to as “stomach flu” or “24-hour flu”Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumoniasinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure.
          Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include feverfeeling tiredvomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skinseizurescoma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.
Ear pain-how to help when flying or diving

          Ear pain is common when descending in an airplane, or when diving.

          The air in the middle ear shrinks on descent in air or water, creating a negative pressure in the cavity and an inward movement of the ear drum. It is then necessary to ‘clear’ the ear by swallowing, yawning, or by performing the Toynbee manoeuvre (pinch the nose and then swallow), or the Valsalva manoeuvre (blowing out through a pinched nose).